The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit just recently held that an officer of a nationally-chartered bank regulated by the National Bank Act (NBA) had no claim for wrongful termination under a Florida whistleblower statute. According to the federal court, the state-law whistleblower claims were preempted by 12 U.S.C. § 24 (Fifth) of the NBA, which gives a national bank the power to dismiss bank officers “at the pleasure” of the board of directors. Consistent with decisions by other federal circuits, the Eleventh Circuit interpreted “at the pleasure” to be equivalent to at-will employment and held that the Florida whistleblower statute at issue was preempted because, contrary to the nature of at-will employment, it prohibited dismissal of an employee for complaining about certain improper activities by an employer. Further, there was no comparable employment protection in federal law (e.g., Title VII) that would indicate congressional intent not to preempt the Florida statute through 12 U.S.C. § 24 (Fifth) of the NBA. This is a useful employment law decision for national banks that helps preserve their freedom to employ, or not employ, their officers as they see fit and avoid certain types of miscellaneous wrongful termination lawsuits under state law. Below are the details.
Background on the Case
The case is Wiersum v. U.S. Bank, N.A., No. 14-12289, 2015 U.S. App. LEXIS 7436 (11th Cir. May 5, 2015). It involved Marc Wiersum, who was employed by U.S. Bank, N.A. (“US Bank”) as a Vice President and Wealth …
EDITOR’S NOTE: This recent post from the PWMA Employer Law Report on the importance a BYOD policy highlights an area of current concern for bankers and other employers.
Saman Rajaee was a salesman for Design Tech Homes. He used his personal iPhone to connect to his employer’s Microsoft Exchange Server, which allowed him to access his work-related email, contacts and calendar from his phone. Design Tech did not have a BYOD policy. When Rajaee’s employment terminated, Design Tech remotely wiped his phone, which deleted all of his data, including personal emails, texts, photos, personal contacts, etc.
Rajaee sued under the federal Stored Communications (“SCA”) and Computer Fraud and Abuse Acts (“CFAA”) as well as raising various state law claims. Design Tech moved for summary judgment on the federal claims. On the SCA claim, the court held, based on Fifth Circuit precedent, that information an individual stores to his hard drive or cell phone is not in electronic storage within the meaning of the statute.
Design Tech was successful on the CFAA claim as well, but was forced to take a much riskier path than would have been necessary had it simply had a BYOD policy. Generally speaking, the CFAA prohibits accessing a protected computer without authority or in excess of authority, but requires a showing that the computer owner sustained at least $5000 in losses specifically due to either the cost of investigating and responding to an offense or the costs incurred because of a “service interruption.” In Rajaee, …
On August 6, 2014, the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) announced a proposed rule that should be of real concern to covered affirmative action federal contractors. The OFCCP is the agency that enforces federal affirmative action laws. If the proposed rule is adopted, it will add compensation data to the information that covered employers must submit with their annual EEO-1 reports. Keep in mind the “web” of coverage under affirmative action laws reaches far. Coverage is triggered not just by direct federal contracts but also by contracts to provide goods or services to any private sector entity, as long as those goods or services are used in connection with fulfilling some federal contract that your customer or their customers may have. Coverage of financial institutions is triggered by being a depository for federal funds or by being an issuing or paying agent for U.S. Savings Bonds or Notes. Coverage issues and obligations can vary with the dollar volume of the covered work.
Currently, the annual EEO-1 report contains race, ethnicity, and gender information about your workplace, sorted by nine EEO job-type categories. The proposed rule would expand the report to include the following information for each of the EEO categories by race, ethnicity, and gender: total number of employees; total W-2 income; total hours worked.
The obligation to provide compensation information on EEO-1 reports would apply to covered affirmative action employers with more than 100 employees and a covered federal contract or subcontract for …